This articles explores Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) outlook for:
- charging infrastructure
- charging infrastructure developments
Developing a charging network has been a key priority globally.
The International Energy Agency (2019) reports that there are currently:
- 5.2 million chargers for light duty vehicles currently
- 157,000 fast chargers for buses 
Charging infrastructure developments
Charging infrastructure developments have occurred in parallel with EVs and the automotive sector.
Key developments already happening in the market and that are expected to be developed are:
With the lack of dominant standards for developing charging infrastructure, the market experienced a variety of different types of chargers and payment options. In many cases, not all chargers were compatible with all EVs and payment systems. For this reason, the sector has vowed for interoperability.
One of the most recent developments from a payment standpoint is “contactless” card payments at charging stations, and supporting mobile payments from wallets such as Google Pay and Apple Pay.  This is already being implemented in countries like the United States and the United Kingdom.
Currently charging an EV requires it to be plugged into a charging station with a type 1, 2 or 3 charging plug. However, other solutions being explored include wireless charging. This would allow an EV to be charged without the need to plug them into charging infrastructure.
While this technology is still in its infancy, Sweden has developed the first wireless (inductive) charging road which is a 1.6km road dedicated to charge an electric bus and a truck. 
Super fast charging
In the race for EV range, the sector is also pushing for super fast charging. This currently involves a 350kw charger that can charge around 150km in 10 minutes.  However, most currently available EVs cannot support super fast charging because of physical constraints of cell designs within batteries. 
For more information on charging, refer to the All about chargers article.
Progress in battery technology development and economies of scale continue to drive down the costs of batteries. Prices in 2017 were recorded at $USD162/kWh and are expected to drop to $USD74/kWh by 2030.  This is a key industry driver and will help EVs reach cost parity with ICEVs as early as 2020.
End of life opportunities
The market for end of life applications, when batteries have reached 70% of their original capacity and are no longer suitable for EV driving, is expected to create second life applications.
- refurbishing or repurposing batteries for stationary storage where batteries can be grouped to provide a variety of services for powering buildings, ports, or communities, and or other vehicle uses. The second life battery market is estimated to reach over 95GWh by 2025 
- battery waste and recycling standards and value chains, where battery materials are processed as waste or recycled for other uses
Materials and supply chain
The continual increase in EV battery production will result in larger demand for raw materials, such as cobalt and lithium. It is essential for traceability and transparency of sourced raw materials in the battery supply chain – to address the sustainability aspect of battery production. 
For more information on batteries, refer to the Electric vehicle batteries article.